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Emil Fedotov
Emil Fedotov

Stephen Hawking's Last Paper: A New Perspective on the Big Bang and the Multiverse


- Evidence and challenges for the Big Bang Theory. H2: Who is Stephen Hawking? - Biography and achievements of Stephen Hawking. - Hawking's contributions to cosmology and black hole physics. H2: What is Hawking's Final Theory About the Big Bang? - Summary and explanation of Hawking's final paper with Thomas Hertog. - How Hawking's final theory differs from the usual account of eternal inflation. - Implications and limitations of Hawking's final theory. H2: How to Access Hawking's Final Paper? - Information on how to download or read online the PDF version of Hawking's final paper. - A link to the Journal of High Energy Physics website where the paper is published. H2: Conclusion - A summary of the main points and takeaways from the article. - A call to action for the reader to learn more about Hawking's work or the Big Bang Theory. H2: FAQs - Five unique questions and answers related to the topic of the article. Table 2: Article with HTML formatting Big Bang Theory: Stephen Hawking's Final Contribution




The Big Bang Theory is one of the most widely accepted and influential models of the origin and evolution of the universe. It describes how the universe began from a singularity, a point of infinite density and temperature, and expanded rapidly in a process called inflation. The Big Bang Theory also predicts that the universe is finite, homogeneous, isotropic, and filled with radiation and matter.




big bang theory stephen hawking pdf 17



However, the Big Bang Theory is not without its problems and mysteries. For instance, what caused the initial singularity? What happened before the Big Bang? What is the nature and fate of the universe? How can we test and verify the predictions of the theory?


These are some of the questions that fascinated Stephen Hawking, one of the most brilliant and renowned physicists of our time. Hawking made groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of cosmology, black holes, quantum gravity, and string theory. He also wrote several popular books, such as A Brief History of Time, that explained complex scientific concepts to millions of readers.


In this article, we will explore what is the Big Bang Theory, who is Stephen Hawking, what is his final theory about the Big Bang, how to access his final paper, and some frequently asked questions on this topic.


What is the Big Bang Theory?




The Big Bang Theory is a scientific model that explains how the universe began and evolved over time. The term "Big Bang" was coined by Fred Hoyle, a British astronomer who was actually a critic of the theory. He used it as a derogatory term to mock the idea that the universe started from a single point.


The origin of the Big Bang Theory can be traced back to 1927, when Georges Lemaître, a Belgian priest and physicist, proposed that the universe was expanding from an initial "primeval atom". This idea was supported by Edwin Hubble's observations in 1929 that showed that distant galaxies were moving away from us at speeds proportional to their distances. This implied that the universe was expanding uniformly in all directions.


In 1948, George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and Robert Herman developed the idea that the early universe was very hot and dense, and underwent nuclear reactions that produced light elements such as hydrogen and helium. They also predicted that there should be a remnant radiation from this primordial fireball, which would have cooled down as the universe expanded.


In 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson accidentally discovered this cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), which is a faint glow of radiation that fills the entire sky. The CMB is considered to be the strongest evidence for the Big Bang Theory, as it matches the predictions of the theory very well.


However, the Big Bang Theory also faces some challenges and puzzles. For example, how did the universe become so smooth and uniform, when different regions of the sky were not in causal contact with each other? How did the tiny fluctuations in the density and temperature of the early universe grow into the large-scale structures we see today, such as galaxies and clusters? What is the nature and origin of the dark matter and dark energy that make up most of the mass and energy of the universe? What is the ultimate fate of the universe: will it expand forever, or collapse into a Big Crunch?


Who is Stephen Hawking?




Stephen Hawking was a British physicist and cosmologist who was born on January 8, 1942 in Oxford, England. He showed an early interest and talent in mathematics and science, and studied physics at Oxford University and Cambridge University. He obtained his PhD in 1966, under the supervision of Roger Penrose, a leading expert on general relativity and black holes.


Hawking's research focused on the theoretical aspects of cosmology and black hole physics. He made several important discoveries and contributions, such as:


  • The singularity theorems, which proved that spacetime singularities, where the laws of physics break down, are inevitable in general relativity under certain conditions. These singularities occur at the center of black holes and at the beginning of the Big Bang.



  • The Hawking radiation, which showed that black holes are not completely black, but emit radiation due to quantum effects near their event horizon. This implies that black holes can lose mass and evaporate over time.



  • The no-hair theorem, which stated that black holes are characterized by only three parameters: their mass, charge, and angular momentum. This means that any other information about the matter that formed or fell into a black hole is lost forever.



  • The no-boundary proposal, which suggested that the universe has no boundary or edge in space or time. This means that the universe has no beginning or end, but is finite and self-contained.



  • The information paradox, which raised a fundamental conflict between quantum mechanics and general relativity regarding the fate of information that falls into a black hole. Hawking initially argued that information is destroyed by black holes, violating a basic principle of quantum mechanics. Later, he changed his mind and proposed that information is preserved by black holes, but in a highly scrambled and inaccessible form.



Hawking also wrote several bestselling books that popularized science and cosmology to a wide audience. His most famous book is A Brief History of Time, which was published in 1988 and sold more than 10 million copies. He also wrote The Universe in a Nutshell, A Briefer History of Time, The Grand Design, and many other books and articles.


Hawking suffered from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease that affects the nerves and muscles. He was diagnosed with ALS when he was 21 years old, and was given only a few years to live. However, he defied the odds and lived until he was 76 years old. He died on March 14, 2018 in Cambridge, England.


Hawking was widely regarded as one of the greatest minds of our time, and a symbol of courage and perseverance. He received many honors and awards for his scientific achievements, such as the Albert Einstein Award, the Wolf Prize, the Copley Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Breakthrough Prize. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the Order of the Companions of Honour.


What is Hawking's Final Theory About the Big Bang?




Hawking's final theory about the Big Bang was published posthumously in May 2018 in the Journal of High Energy Physics. The paper was co-authored by Thomas Hertog, a Belgian physicist who collaborated with Hawking for many years.


The paper is titled "A smooth exit from eternal inflation?", and it addresses one of the most controversial aspects of modern cosmology: the concept of eternal inflation and the multiverse.


Eternal inflation is an extension of the inflationary scenario proposed by Alan Guth in 1981. Inflation is a period of exponential expansion that occurred in the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang. Inflation explains how the universe became so large, smooth, flat, and homogeneous from a tiny initial state.


How to Access Hawking's Final Paper?




If you are interested in reading Hawking's final paper, you have several options to access it. The paper is available online in PDF format, which you can download or view on your device. You can also read the paper on the website of the Journal of High Energy Physics, where it is published.


Here are some links to access Hawking's final paper:


  • PDF version on arXiv.org



  • Journal version on SpringerLink



  • Bibliographic information on INSPIRE-HEP



You can also find more information and commentary on Hawking's final paper on various websites and blogs, such as:


  • Phys.org: Taming the multiverseStephen Hawking's final theory about the big bang



  • Forbes: Stephen Hawking's Final Theory On Many Worlds Is Now Published



  • ScienceAlert: Stephen Hawking's Final Paper on The Multiverse Has Just Been Published



Conclusion




In this article, we have learned about the Big Bang Theory, Stephen Hawking, and his final theory about the origin of the universe. We have seen how the Big Bang Theory describes how the universe began and evolved from a singularity, and how it is supported by various observations and evidence. We have also seen how Stephen Hawking made significant contributions to cosmology and black hole physics, and how he challenged and refined the Big Bang Theory with his final paper.


Hawking's final theory proposes a new way of understanding the Big Bang, based on string theory and holography. It predicts that the universe is finite and simpler than the usual account of eternal inflation and the multiverse. It also suggests that the universe has no boundary or edge in space or time.


Hawking's final theory is a remarkable achievement that reflects his lifelong quest for a unified theory of everything. However, it is not a definitive answer to the mysteries of the cosmos. It still leaves many questions open and unresolved, such as how to test and verify the theory experimentally, and what are the implications for our existence and purpose in this universe.


If you want to learn more about Hawking's work or the Big Bang Theory, you can read his books, papers, or articles online. You can also watch documentaries, movies, or videos that feature him or his ideas. You can also join online forums or communities that discuss these topics and share your thoughts and opinions with others.


We hope you enjoyed this article and found it informative and interesting. Thank you for reading!


FAQs




Q: What is a singularity?




A: A singularity is a point where the density and curvature of spacetime become infinite, and the laws of physics break down. Singularities are predicted by general relativity to occur at the center of black holes and at the beginning of the Big Bang.


Q: What is inflation?




A: Inflation is a period of exponential expansion that occurred in the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang. Inflation explains how the universe became so large, smooth, flat, and homogeneous from a tiny initial state.


Q: What is eternal inflation?




A: Eternal inflation is an extension of inflation that implies that some regions of space never stop inflating. These regions are separated by rapidly expanding bubbles that form new universes with different physical laws and constants. This leads to the concept of the multiverse, which is a collection of all possible universes.


Q: What is string theory?




A: String theory is a branch of theoretical physics that attempts to reconcile gravity and general relativity with quantum mechanics, in part by describing the fundamental constituents of the universe as tiny vibrating strings. String theory also predicts the existence of extra dimensions of space beyond the usual three.


Q: What is holography?




A: Holography is a principle that states that the information and physics of a higher-dimensional space can be encoded and reproduced on a lower-dimensional boundary. For example, a 3-D object can be represented by a 2-D hologram. Holography is used in string theory to relate different theories of quantum gravity in different dimensions. 71b2f0854b


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